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Hematoma after ACDF surgery

Complications attributed to ACDF included; dysphagia, hematoma, worsening myelopathy, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, CSF leaks, wound infection, radiculopathy, Horner's Syndrome, respiratory insufficiency, esophageal perforation, and instrument failure. There were just single case reports of an in Precise preoperative preparation and systematic evaluation are central to successful management of PO hematoma after anterior cervical surgery. Risk factors for PO hematoma include multilevel decompression, OPLL, higher BMI, and longer operation time Acute airway obstruction (AAO) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) can be caused by postoperative retropharyngeal hematoma, which requires urgent recognition and treatment. However, the causes, evaluation, and appropriate treatment of this complication are not clearly defined The patient felt extremities weakness relieved immediately after surgery, no difficulties in breathing, swallowing, or other complications were presented. Drainage tube was removed uneventfully 30 hours after surgery. However, 3 hours later, the patient felt cervical swelling, pressure sensation of the neck, and mild obstructive dysphagia One case study and several large series documented that following ACDF, there was a 0.4%-2.4% incidence of postoperative cervical hematomas warranting secondary surgery [ Table 1 -3]. [ 2, 6, 9 ] In 2003, Jankowski et al. evaluated a 32-year-old female who 6 hours following a C4-C5/C5-C6 ACDF became quadriplegic; following resection of a large epidural hematoma, the patient fully recovered neurological function [ Table 1 ]. [ 9

A rare complication of ACDF, a hematoma can lead to respiratory compromise, tracheal deviation, and airway loss if not recognized and treated immediately. Difficulty swallowing can be an early sign Clinically significant hematomas typically appear within 6-12 hours of surgery (5, 14, 16). Lied et al. found all wound hematomas presented within 6 hours after surgery (5). Song found 67% of retropharyngeal hematomas occur within 24 hours and the remaining 33% within 72 hours (13)

A Review of Complication Rates for Anterior Cervical

  1. For an ACDF surgery, the main potential risks and complications that tend to occur include: Inadequate symptom relief after the surgery. Failure of bone graft healing to create a fusion (a non-union, or pseudarthrosis) Temporary or persistent swallowing (medically known as dysphasia) See After ACDF: Trouble with Swallowing
  2. It is not unusual for a hematoma to occur after surgery, generally at the surgical site, as a result of damage to the surrounding blood vessels. In some cases, improper care of the patient after surgery can lead to a hematoma, as well. The hematoma usually occurs only a few hours after surgery and can cause pain and discoloration
  3. ACDF Complications. Hi, I'm not sure what to expect or do at this point. I've had 2 ACDF surgeries. The affected vertebrae are C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7. The first surgery was done in 2013, about 6 months after that I was in involved in a motor vehicle accident which ended up causing a whole lot of complications and pain
Lecture dysphagia following acdf surgery

Treatment of hematomas after anterior cervical spine

This time the fusion will be below the first fusion I had at C5-C6. The new fusion will be at C7-C8. I am concerned that this will greatly limit my ability to move. I did not realize how much my neck movement would be after the first fusion. I had two ACDF fusions. My first surgery was more than 15 years ago at C6-C7. I just had C5-C6 fused ACDF is anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, which is a minimally invasive surgery done on the neck to relieve symptoms from a degenerative disc or bulging disc in the neck. The recovery time post ACDF surgery is about 4 to 6 weeks and there is a low complication risk with this procedure. Immediately after the ACDF surgery, patient experiences discomfort in swallowing and hoarseness after. The recovery after ACDF surgery may vary from patient to patient due to different baseline health and the type of ACDF surgery performed, The ACDF helps to relieve symptoms such as neck pain, numbness and tingling in the arms, shoulders, or hand, shooting pain in the arms, weakness of hands, or lower extremities Dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is common, with a prevalence ranging between 28% and 57% of cases. However, nearly all cases resolve spontaneously within 2 years, thus identifying patients who require more detailed or invasive work-up is a challenging task for clinicians ACDF surgery success rate. This surgery has a high success rate. Between 93 to 100 percent. Trusted Source. of people who've had ACDF surgery for arm pain reported relief from pain, and 73 to 83.

Surgery has rarely given as much profit as it was wished for. Progress in our ability to detect and cure spinal injury has improved significantly over the last twenty years of my career. It is normal to think about how well your neck will bend after the surgery if you consider an anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF) operation for. The biggest symptoms of nerve damage after surgery are usually numbness, tingling, burning, or muscle weakness or atrophy. Many times nerve issues after surgery are temporary, for example, many patients have nerve problems after surgery that only last for a few weeks to months (2,3) There are also potential complications of ACDF surgery that patients can influence. The number one preventable complication of the surgery is failure for the disks or bone grafts to fuse because the patient smokes. If you happen to be getting a bone graft with pins and screws,. ACDF C5 & C6 surgery complications. I had ACDF surgery 5 weeks ago. I have the following problems. 2 screws are through my C6 vertabrea and into the disc between C6 & C7. an xray shows this as well as cervical lordosis. I get dizzy when standing walking ans sometimes sitting. I have severe pain in my neck, in between and above my shoulders I. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is often performed for the treatment of degenerative cervical spine. While this procedure is highly successful, 0.1-1.6% of early and late postoperative infection have been reported although the rate of late infection is very low. Here, we report a case of 59-year-old male patient who developed deep cervical abscess 30 days after anterior.

No surgery is without risks. General complications of any surgery include bleeding, infection, blood clots (deep vein thrombosis), and reactions to anesthesia. If spinal fusion is done at the same time as a discectomy, there is a greater risk of complications. Specific complications related to ACDF may include: Hoarseness and swallowing. Most patients after ACDF and similar surgeries complain more of a sore throat than pain in the incision itself. Trouble swallowing large pills or dry food is common. Pain in the back of the neck and in-between the shoulder blades, lasting for weeks after the surgery is very common and usually not a cause for concern Hematoma alone is the most common vascular complication reported after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). We present this case to report the occurrence of postoperative cervical hematoma complicated by ipsilateral carotid thrombosis and aphasia after an uncomplicated C4-6 ACDF. This is a case of a 65-year-old woman who underwent revision fusions of the C4-5 and C6-7 levels.

The case reports comprised a case of cervical wound hematoma 6 weeks after 1-level ACDF associated with instrumentation settling resulting in neck pain, dysphagia, and shortness of breath (n=1), one case of cervical wound hematoma resulting in neck swelling and dyspnea 16 days after 2-level ACDF secondary to superior thyroid artery hemorrhage. Hematoma after anterior cervical spine surgery 15938 Int J Clin Exp Med 2017;10(12):15937-15949 However, there is lack of recognized under-standing about the etiology, pathomechanism, prevention, and even epidemiological assess-ment of hematoma after anterior cervical spine surgery [26]. To our knowledge, no meta-analy Background: Postoperative complications after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) have a significant impact on clinical outcomes and health care resource use. Identifying predictive factors for complications after ACDF may allow for the modification of care protocols to mitigate complication risk. The purpose of this study is to determine risk factors for the incidence of medical.

Hematoma after Spine Surgery. Hematomas can form after surgery (all surgical procedures involve some degree of trauma, after all). Generally, surgical hematomas form near the surgical site. If a hematoma develops, you may notice some additional pain, discomfort, or swelling. In most cases, surgical hematomas will heal on their own given enough. The pioneers of the ACDF procedure were Smith, Robinson and Cloward in 1958 [].Offering good results with a low complications rate and a short hospitalization time, ACDF has been widely popularized and today is one of the most common procedures for the treatment of degenerative cervical spine conditions [1,2,3].Despite the familiarity of spinal surgeons with ACDF, one should always bear in. You've had anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) surgery, a first step toward the goals of decreasing neck and/or arm pain, and stopping symptoms of spinal cord compression from getting worse. Now it's time to focus on healing. By following these tips, you will set yourself up for a successful outcome after surgery

Mary McMahon Use of blood thinners before surgery may cause a surgical hematoma. A surgical hematoma is a collection of blood in a sac in close proximity to a surgical site. This complication of surgery can occur in many different locations and usually resolves on its own, although in some cases, the surgical site needs to be reopened to allow a surgeon to drain the hematoma and fix the cause 1. Introduction. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures have a 2-3% rate of post-operative complications, with rates increasing with patient age, comorbidity, and number of levels , , .Hematomas are a highly feared complication of anterior cervical surgery , , .Pre-vertebral hematoma formation secondary to ACDF occur only rarely but must be rapidly detected and managed to. Complications after ACDF include RLN palsy, horners syndrome, pharyngeal or esophageal laceration, great vessel injury, epidural hematoma, seroma, dural laceration, spinal cord contusion, CSF leak, bone graft or plate extrusion. Rates of these complications vary with or without plate placement, with varyin than 6 weeks after surgery. 3 Approach-Related Complications Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Dysphagia, Dysphonia, and Esophageal Perforations Bharat R. Dave, D. Devanand, and Gautam Zaveri Table 3.1 Vulnerable nerves during ACDF Glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal nerves C3 level or above—oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing Readmission rates for ACDF ranged from 5.1% (30 days) to 7.7% (90 days postoperatively). Complications attributed to ACDF included; dysphagia, hematoma, worsening myelopathy, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, CSF leaks, wound infection, radiculopathy, Horner's Syndrome, respiratory insufficiency, esophageal perforation, and instrument failure

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the most common surgical procedure in the treatment of spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy with demonstrated long-term clinical success [1, 2].Since its introduction in 1958 by Cloward [], Robinson and Smith [], a variety of attempts has been conducted for the refinement of the operation to minimize complications and improve interbody. Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a commonly used procedure. However, few studies reported post-operative complications. This study looks into the prevalence of possible complications and the mortality rate in the first 30 days postoperatively. Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent ACDF for degenerative disc disease from 2008-2017, in a single. INTRODUCTION. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is one of the most commonly performed spinal surgery procedures, and the reported number of cases per year is steadily increasing. 1-6 More ACDF surgeries are being performed in the outpatient setting, as is the trend in several other orthopedic subspecialties. This transition is largely due to relatively short operative times and. March 25, 2016 at 6:15 am. Post count: 7996. #21683. Symptoms generally should be much improved after ACDF surgery. The only increased symptoms after surgery that normally occurs is a general ache in the back of the neck. Those symptoms occur from converting the collapsed level back to pre-collapse height from the stretch of the posterior. Increased in-hospital complications after primary posterior versus primary anterior cervical fusion. Memtsoudis SG (1), Hughes A, Ma Y, Chiu YL, Sama AA, Girardi FP. (1)Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA

Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum is an uncommon complication after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery. Our patient was a 48-year-old woman with two previous cervical surgeries with fixation of C4-C5 and C5-C6, the last one in 2003. Two years after surgery, she presented with arthralgia, arthritis, chills, and fluctuating rash. In 2007, she presented with dysphagia, halitosis, and. Hematoma after surgery or postoperative hematoma is basically a localized collection of blood at the surgery site. It is defined as the collection or pooling of blood under the skin, in body tissues or an organ. Hematoma is a common potential post-surgery complication, and is commonly seen after a face-lift surgery In almost all cases, however, the surgery will allow a specialist to get to the root of the pain, identifying the problem, taking that out if appropriate, and replacing it with an implant, device, or other tool to prevent the pain from returning. Typically, you will only have to stay in the hospital for a short period of time after having surgery An analysis of ACDF outcomes at a single institution found that 0.1% of patients developed hematomas, and a meta-analysis of 14 studies of various approaches and surgical procedures for cervical spine surgery found that epidural hematoma occurred in approximately 1% of patients

Common perioperative neurological complications following ACDF include vocal cord paresis or dysphagia due to injury of the recurrent laryngeal or vagus nerve (4-11%), 19 nerve root injury (0.2-3.2%), 3, 5, 14, 26 and spinal cord injury (0.2-0.9%). 5, 8, 13, 26 The incidence observed in our study (0.4%) appears to be lower than that reported in. Following is the ACDF surgery success rate based on recent researches; In around 90 to 100 percent of cases of arm pain, ACDF has proved to be successful.; Whereas, it has a success rate of 70 to 80 percent in patients who had surgery for neck pain In the literature, the reported risk of hematoma after ACDF ranges from 0.2% to 7.9%. [17,25,26,27] In our series, one patient (0.9%) developed a postoperative hematoma. Importantly, the hematoma.

Complications include long-term pain. Anterior cervical discectomy surgery (ACDF) is a procedure to reduce neck and back pain caused by disc problems. It involves removing an eroded or herniated. This is highlighted by our current report—specifically, airway compromise is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of anterior cervical spine surgery. Evidence that most complications occur in the immediate period after ACDF (< 6 hours) informed the decision to include a minimum PACU stay of 5 hours in our protocol. 18 Other. The incidence of complications associated with this type of surgery is low2,7,9). Though this is a common surgery, post-operative complications should not be overlooked. Neural injury, hoarseness, wound infection, CSF leakage, and post-op hematomas can all develop after ACDF. Neural injury causing neurological deficits can be fatal to patients

Acute airway obstruction due to postoperative

  1. After all, it is normal to feel pain, tired, run-down and lacking in energy. It is also common to experience depression after surgery, which can make you feel tired, run-down and lacking in energy.   Learn how to identify the differences between a normal recovery and depression after surgery
  2. A 2017 prospective study with 106 patients post-ACDF 4 measured the difference of the soft tissue thickness anterior to the midportion of C3 and C6 at immediate post-op, 2 weeks, 1 month, 6 months and 12 months after surgery against baseline
  3. Neck fusion surgery, also called Anterior Cervical Fusion and Discectomy (ACDF), is the process of fusing two vertebrae together in an attempt to stabilize the spine or remove a disc. This procedure has many different methods, including discectomy, bone grafts, metal cages, and much more
  4. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been highly successful in the treatment of disc herniation and spondylosis22. Despite the popularity of this procedure, the risk of pseudarthrosis after ACDF is an important complication, similar to that seen after lumbar spine fusions. The incidence of ACDF has been reported between -50%23-29.
  5. A Patient's Guide to Complications of Spine Surgery. Introduction. With any surgery, there is the risk of complications. When surgery is done near the spine and spinal cord, these complications (if they occur) can be very serious. Complications could involve subsequent pain and impairment and the need for additional surgery
  6. Side effects of Anterior Cervical Spine Fusion Surgery: ACDF and ACCF are both very safe surgeries. However, like any other surgery, common complications, e.g. pain, infection, hematoma etc. can happen. Even these are extremely rare with anterior cervical fusion surgeries as significant soft tissue and muscle dissection are not required when.

Retropharyngeal hematoma following anterior cervical spine

  1. Emergent cervical spine surgery may occur after a trauma or if the patient has a spinal tumor. Low Risk, But Complications Exist The success rate of cervical spine surgery is very high, but complications have been reported. The take away is that most of the complications were very rare, some were almost nonexistent, Buser and Wang said
  2. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a surgery to remove a herniated or degenerative disk of the spine. The surgeon makes an incision in the throat area, entering from the front (anterior), and moves aside your neck muscles, trachea and esophagus to access the spine
  3. ACDF surgery is the most common method among spine surgeons for treating a cervical herniated disc. In this surgery, the disc is removed through a small one-inch incision in the front of the neck. After removing the disc, the disc space itself is set up for the adjacent vertebrae to eventually grow together and fuse
  4. If more than one fusion is performed, there might be a restricted vertical and horizontal amplitude present after the procedure.Recovery Time for ACDF Surgery. Following the surgery, if there have been no complications or prolonged recuperation, the person will receive instructions on home therapy. The pain is relieved by narcotics
Slipped rod

Spotting trouble after spinal surgery - American Nurs

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a type of spine surgery used for the treatment of neck or arm pain caused by cervical radiculopathy. This surgery involves the removal of a protruding disc from the spine for relief of pressure on the spinal nerves, followed by reconstruction. It can take several weeks or months to recover after. For example, neck surgery complications frequently involve the esophagus. Patients undergoing an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) are at a higher risk of dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), nerve injury in the larynx (voice box), and pharynx wall swelling The estimated cost of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) surgery in India usually starts $5000 however, it may go up to as much as $10,000. it depends on the hospital charges and the fee charged by the surgeon. This price usually does not cover the post-operational physiotherapy program What to know before your ACDF surgery. Most cases of cervical nerve compression and/or herniated disc resolve after a few weeks or months of nonsurgical care. If your spine surgeon recommends surgery, the procedure, possible benefits and risks, as well as the recovery process will be explained to you in detail

Acute post-operative airway complications following

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Complication

  1. The fusion rate was 84.6% after 4-level ACDF and 94.4% after 3-level ACDF (p = 0.122). At last follow-up, a significantly higher proportion of patients in the 4-level group continued to have axial neck pain (53.8%) than in the 3-level group (31%; p = 0.039); the daily oral morphine equivalent dose was significantly higher in the 4-level group.
  2. imize confounding by extraneous factors (e.g., respiratory infection, cardiac complications).10 Moreover, the majority of patients experiencing airway compromise do so within the first 24 hr after surgery. The use of multipl
  3. Abstract. Objectives: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common procedure in cervical degenerative disorders and cervical trauma patients. However, this procedure and approach are associated with peri- and post-operative complications. This study aims to report peri- and early postoperative complications occurred during ACDF and also tries to find any relation between.
  4. • Walking is your main form of initial therapy after this surgery and is encouraged to avoid deconditioning, blood clots and respiratory complications. You should take several short walks on a daily basis, even if it is just within your home. You can increase the frequency and length of walks as tolerated by your pain and comfort level

Hematoma After Surgery: Learn the Causes and Treatment

In hematoma, the blood is organized and is surrounded by different tissues. A hematoma may develop as one of the many potential complication of many surgeries. In this case, the very collection of blood accumulates in a post surgical site. Hematoma after surgery develops several hours after a surgical procedure The researchers then reviewed the follow-up findings for each patient, searching for any complications noted during the surgery, at 2 and 4 weeks after, and then again at 3, 6 and 12 months after. They found, through x-rays, that at 12 months, fusion was successful in 94.5 percent of the patients

Seven-Year cTDR Outcomes with Mobi-C® Shows SuperiorA Visual Guide to Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

ACDF Complications - Colorado Spine Surgeo

  1. or neck pain maybe once a year in that. Went in for a routine checkup in 2011 and they found out I had a ruptured disc
  2. ACDF Permanent Restrictions. Hello, I had a 2 level ACDF, donor bone & titanium plate/screws in Aug 2001. (C5-6,6-7) Everything seems have went well and most pains and numbness have decreased. As a 38yoa Police Officer can you tell me what effects this type of procedure will have on me permanently ? I know I will have decreased ROM with my neck
  3. The incidence of Horner's syndrome in early ACDF series varied considerably, with reported rates ranging from 0.02% to 3.8%. 10,12,13,16,17 In more recent ACDF series, the reported incidence has been more consistent (0.1% to 0.3%). 11,14,15 Horner's syndrom
  4. This varies depending on the type of surgery performed. For single, two and some three level surgeries, you will likely go home the day of the surgery. Otherwise, you will go home the day after surgery. We have found that patients generally prefer the comfort and support that home offers. Going home sooner lowers your risk for complication

Complications Of ACDF Surgery Musculoskeletal Issues

For an ACDF surgery, the main potential risks and complications that tend to occur include: Inadequate symptom relief after the surgery Failure of bone graft healing to create a fusion (a.k.a. non-union o For a 1 level ACDF, typical surgery time is 1.5 hours, for a 2 level ACDF, surgery time is 2-2.5 hours, and for a 3 level ACDF, surgery typically lasts around 2.5-3.0 hours. After surgery, you will be taken to the recovery room where your blood pressure, temperature, pulse and respiration will be checked frequently Postoperative restrictions. Nine (90%) of the respondents give lifting restrictions after a single-level and multilevel ACDF, with a mean of 10 kg and SD of 2.5 kg in both cases, and a range of 5-15 kg (Figure 2 ). Figure 2: Weight lifting restriction responses after single-level and multilevel ACDF. ACDF, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion While ACDF recovery time can depend on the individual, there are typical steps that most people can expect to experience in the weeks and month after surgery. In this post, we'll review what to expect after ACDF surgery , from post-op to a month out, as well as activities to avoid throughout recovery A recent report was able to provide some numbers I can now use to help explain to patients. After anterior approaches to cervical spine surgery: • 60% had a postoperative issue, including 27% with postoperative voice complaint and 48% with postoperative swallowing complaint. • Swallowing complaints that lasted beyond 1 year occurred in 28%

The Scar: Photo Retrospective | ACDF: Neck is Wack

Impact of smoking on postoperative complications after

Speech disturbances may occur after surgery, which usually resolve and are self-limiting, rarely requiring further treatment. There are nerves in the path of the surgery which can cause a droopy or dry eye, this is a very rare complication which usually resolves, but may require further treatment. Bone graft is used to accomplish a fusion Adjacent Segment Disease After Anterior Cervical Decompression Surgery (ASDafterACDF) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government Objective: To determine the incidence and circumstances surrounding the development of a symptomatic postoperative epidural hematoma in the cervical spine. Methods: Patients who underwent cervical spine surgery between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at 23 institutions were reviewed, and all patients who developed an epidural hematoma. Swallowing Problems after Cervical Spine Surgery Definition: Swallowingis a complicated sequence of both voluntary and reflex movements, which needs your brain to coordinate many muscles and nerves.; Dysphagiais the medical term for a sensation of difficulty or abnormality of swallowing. It can happen rapidly, or slowly and has many causes. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a.

Potential Risks and Complications of ACDF Surger

Throughout the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clinical study, patients reported health related problems to their doctors. Some important one-level study events through 5 years after surgery for the Mobi-C and the Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) patients include:. Neck pain in 52% of Mobi-C patients (93 out of 179 patients) and 53% of ACDF patients (43 out of 81 patients) One of the main procedures in treating cervical disc herniations and degenerative (worn out) discs, after failure of non-operative treatment, is the procedure referred to as ACDF, which stands for: Anterior (done from the front) Cervical (refers to the neck) Discectomy (removal of disc, decompression of nerves) and Fusion (healing process where two or more bones become one An anterior cervical discectomy (decompression) and fusion (ACDF) is an operation through the front of the neck to relieve pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerves, as well as to stabilise the spine. This means the operation is done from the front of the neck, rather than from the back. This refers to the neck nhancEd recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a com-prehensive perioperative care model that optimizes outcomes via standardized, evidence-based inter-ventions.13 A major goal of ERAS is to maintain organ homeostasis and minimize the surgical stress response, so that patients experience a more rapid return to baseline function after surgery

Noninfectious prevertebral soft-tissue inflammation andAvoiding Complications During Lumbar SurgeryPPT - Nursing Care of the Postoperative Spine Patient CareCervical Fusion Surgery C4 - C7 10 days post op | FunnyDog

WHAT DOES THE SURGERY ENTAIL? Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery is done for multiple reasons. Commonly to remove pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots. This surgery is done with the patient under a general anesthetic. A small incision is made in the front of the neck after checking the level with an x-ray hematoma, this issue merits serious consideration despite the low incidence of this complication In the literature, the reported risk of hematoma after ACDF ranges from 0.2% to 7.9% [17,25-27]. In our series, one patient (0.9%) developed a postoperative hematoma. Importantly, the hematoma developed one week postop General complications of most surgery include infection, bleeding, blood clots, and anesthesia risks. Some patients might need several additional surgeries, after spine surgery. A list of some common complications are provided here: Anesthesia Complications Nearly all surgical procedures need some types of anesthesia before the surgery The study found that patients with cannabis use disorder were at increased risk for several types of complications after spinal surgery. The cannabis users were about twice as likely to develop respiratory and blood clot-related (thromboembolism) complications. They also had nearly a threefold increase in the risk of stroke and other neurologic. Risk for repeated surgery at index level was even higher for ADR, OR 5.1 (CI 2.4-10.7), p < 0.001. Reoperation rate because of ASD in the whole cohort did not differ between ACDF and ADR groups, p = 0.40. The group initially treated with artificial disc replacement showed higher rate of reoperations and more implant-related complications fusion (ACDF) is a surgery for treating damaged or worn discs in your neck. In this procedure, a surgeon removes the damaged disc, relieving pressure on complications related to surgery. More importantly, smoking slows bone growth and could cause your surgery to fail. • Stop certain medicines