The June weather was positively scorching at 106 degrees, and after seven of the eggs had hatched, Daisy knew she needed to get her new babies to the lake to cool down. The remaining two eggs.. Disruptions could cause the adults to come off the eggs while they are being incubated, especially if the duck leaves the nest repeatedly or for extended periods of time, said Dave Robson, the Forest Preserve's natural resources management supervisor Herein, do Mallards abandon their eggs? After each egg is added, the clutch is covered to protect it from predators. If you find a nest full of duck eggs, leave it well alone - it is unlikely to have been abandoned. The laying period is very stressful for the female - she lays more than half her body weight in eggs in a couple of weeks We found a couple of abandoned mallard duck eggs when I was a kid. We were away from home for the weekend, so my mom kept them warm in her bra. When we got home, she called the nearest zoo, and they said they would put the eggs in one of their incubators
If you believe the abandoned duck eggs are alive, rinse them off in lukewarm water so they are clean and place them in an incubator. You can buy incubators for duck eggs online or at your nearest pet store. Make sure the incubator stays at 99 to 101 °F (37 to 38 °C). You will also need to turn the eggs once a day so they stay warm Best Answer. If the duck has not returned by now it is more than likely that the duck will not come back and has decided to make a nest some place else. I would wait a few more days before picking up the eggs and nest to dispose of them. Advertisement. If you want to long the eggs will go bad and start to stink Once the female mallard starts sitting on the eggs, they will hatch in about 30 days. All of the babies hatch at the same time, and are able to walk within hours of hatching. The mother duck will lead her new family away from the nest area. Where will the ducks go If the mother duck has left with her ducklings and not returned in a couple of days, the eggs will probably not hatch. Sometimes, ducks aren't good at parenting, especially if this is the mother duck's first time raising little ones u/ItzRaez. just now. Abandoned eggs? What should I do? Rescuing a Wild Duck. Hello. I was hoping some people would know what to do from here. A female mallard duck had laid 7 eggs at the time I'm typing this, and she had been laying on them quite frequently. Ever since the day before yesterday (April 15th), she has been gone
Mallards build nests on the ground close to ponds and lay about a dozen eggs. Chicks can swim and feed within a day after hatching The Mallard's clutch is 8-13 eggs, which are incubated for 27-28 days to hatching. The Mallard ducklings are fully capable of swimming as soon as they hatch. Mallards usually form pairs in October and November, but only remain together until the female lays her eggs in early spring, at which time she is left by the male
Found newly abandoned duck egg, what to do? Hi, It seems that a duck laid an egg in town at the wrong place: few meters from a road, on pebbles. It might have been a quite place at night but in the morning the road started to be very busy. I saw this morning the egg and the duck seeming uncertain about what to do Similarly, will a mallard duck abandon her nest? At times, ducks will abandon their nests to re-nest in other areas. Other predators will feed on the eggs, so fox & other birds may have already cleaned out the nest. The eggs could be under the mulch, and can survive for 12 hours or more until she returns. How often do mallard ducks lay eggs Eggs are laid between mid-March and the end of July. A normal clutch is about 12 eggs, laid at one to two day intervals. After each egg is laid, the clutch is covered to protect it from predators. If you find a nestful of duck eggs, leave it well alone as it is unlikely to have been abandoned On March 31, 2018, a mallard duck built a nest and laid three eggs in my flower bed. Nearly a week later, the duck laid 14 eggs total. 28 incubation days lat..
In for a duck; Mallard ducklings; Mallard ducklings Find out more information about mallard ducklings, from hatching out of the egg until they are fledged. The life of a duckling As the last egg is laid, the female starts to incubate. The nest is abandoned, although if it is close to the feeding area, the family may continue to use it for. Things to know about a mallard nest. The nest bowl is 7-8 inches in diameter and 1-2 inches deep. Once the nest is built, egg laying will begin from 1-3 days. Nest cover can be any form of vegetation available within the area. Preferably dense vegetation 24 inches high, such as native grasslands and CRP fields April 14, 2021. A wild duck nesting on your property is likely to be a mallard. Her eggs take 25 to 29 days to hatch, according to the U.S. Geological Survey website. Before she begins to incubate, she lays one egg a day, usually ending up with a clutch numbering about a dozen. Watch out a lot more about it Ducks can lay their eggs for up to 10 days before incubation begins. 4. Duck eggs are laid on different days, but they will hatch around the same time! 5. A duck will stay on the nest for at least 20 hours a day! 6. Incubation periods can last between 26 and 37 days. 7. Ducks will sit on dead eggs The mallard is one of the most popular ducks of waterfowl hunters and birdwatchers alike. It's commonly seen in wetlands, ponds and lakes in rural areas and cities throughout Minnesota. Identification. General description: A large puddle duck that's most easily recognized by the male's glossy green head and white neck collar
Eggs need really consistent temperatures and moisture levels to incubate in an unnatural environment (IOW-not mama duck). Duck eggs take 28 days to incubate, chickens 21. I've not done eggs here in a few years, but I think the temperature is something like 101 deg with a high humidity level There are only two reasons she would leave the egg: 1. It is the first of her clutch. She will not start incubating until she has 5-12+ eggs (depending on her species). So the egg was probably totally viable until you stole it. No telling what dam.. It's since been five days with no sign of mother duck, and no new eggs (we have a camera to see the nest, and have been leaving the area as undisturbed as possible). We're pretty sure the nest is abandoned, but I've not been able to find information online about ducks abandoning their nest before incubation to confirm that it is abandoned You are a very kind and caring person to want to save the little duckling inside the egg and make sure it hatches. But there are several things that you need to consider. Was the egg cold when you found it? Was it in a nest of some kind? You say i.. The incubation length on duck eggs is 28 days. At times, ducks will abandon their nests to re-nest in other areas. Other predators will feed on the eggs, so fox & other birds may have already cleaned out the nest. The eggs could be under the mulch, and can survive for 12 hours or more until she returns
The golf club's pet duck, Stella, was in the pond at the time with her babies that had hatched two weeks prior. Chris Grandy, a golf pro at South Winds, told Fox 2 News that he had discovered the mother duck and her nine eggs a month earlier, and named her Stella, after his aunt. He told his team to protect her nest, and did his best to keep Stella and her family close by when the eggs hatched A few years later an animal rescue place, who knew I had ducks, called me and asked if I wanted to rescue another. Someone had found a baby duck and brought it in to them. It had been abandoned in a parking lot and was scared half to death. I took the tiny orphaned duckling in and set it all up for the night. He cried all-night-long. My. Eggs are laid between mid-March and the end of July. The normal clutch is about 12 eggs, laid at one to two day intervals. After each egg is added, the clutch is covered to protect it from predators. If you find a nestful of duck eggs, leave it well alone; it is unlikely to have been abandoned
A painted turtle and mallard ducks make their rounds at Six Mile Lake. The name mallard basically means in old French a male drunkard or sluggard — a reflection that mallard drakes tend to be. The fact is, birds don't abandon their young in response to touch, [but] they will abandon [their offspring and their nest] in response to disturbance, explains biologist Thomas E. Martin of the. We initially thought the nest may have been abandoned, but the next day mother duck was on the nest and has been spending all day every day sitting on the eggs. The adult ducks are not tame, but. strobe. C, Mallard nest (hatching) with eggs marked to trace movements. D, probes and eggs; egg on left with wire taped to it is completed, egg probe in lower center right, steel tipped nest probe in center left, and metal ambient probe in left corner Happy Trails Farm Animal Sanctuary Inc. is a non-profit (501c3) organization that rescues, rehabilitates, and adopts out abused, abandoned, and neglected farm animals such as horses, ponies, pigs, hogs, chickens, ducks, sheep, goats, and cattle
The incubation period for waterfowl lasts from 21 to 31 days, and females spend from 73 to more than 99 percent of each day on the nest. In the extreme case of emperor geese, females spend as much as 99.5 percent of each day on the nest. This leaves a mere seven minutes a day for other activities such as feeding Click to see full answer Keeping this in consideration, how often does a mallard duck lay eggs? The female mallard builds a nest from leaves and grasses and lines it with down plucked from her breast.Eggs are laid between mid-March and the end of July. The normal clutch is about 12 eggs, laid at one to two day intervals. After each egg is added, the clutch is covered to protect it from predators It takes 28 days for each wild Mallard egg to hatch. The process can be facilitated by using a heated lamp without overheating the eggs. Young ducklings are cooped up at first for their own protection and safety from predators. The baby ducks can be confined in a corner of the room or barn, allowing them more space as they grow Mallard Duck Diet. Mallard Ducks eat mostly aquatic vegetation. You will see them duck their head underwater with their butts in the air as they feed on pond weed. They will also eat insects, worms, fish, grass seed, wheat and corn. More Facts About Mallards. It is the female who makes the quacking sound. The male has a raspy type sound Mallard ducks are federally protected, so moving the nest is illegal without a permit. Even more importantly, a duck will not recognize her nest if it is moved even a few feet. A relocated nest will be abandoned. Be patient and the ducks will leave. Once the female mallard starts sitting on the eggs, they will hatch in about 30 days
A mother duck will often kick bad eggs out of the nest or abandon the remaining unhatched eggs. When the hatchlings are born, do not pick up and handle them right away as they are very fragile at this stage and spend the first day beneath their mother to keep warm and for the water-resistant oil on her feathers However, the mother duck and rest of her clutch had disappeared in the meantime. Wood Duck eggs in nest box. Abandoned ducklings should be trans-ferred to a rehabilitation center as soon as practical to increase their chances of being successfully raised and eventually released into the wild Hospital staff waited to see if a male mallard - called a drake - would take the parental reins, but none did. Mallard drakes typically abandon a nest to join a group of other males once incubation of the eggs has begun. Several people at Advocate Sherman Hospital saw the red-tailed hawk attack the mother mallard duck Ducks can start to lay eggs when they are seven or eight months old. Ducks mature and become old enough to lay at 4 7 months or 16 28 weeks of age. The normal clutch is about 12 eggs laid at one to two day intervals. The mallard is a medium sized waterfowl species that is often slightly heavier than most other dabbling ducks Mallard Duck Nest; From: Beth C City: Dyer, IN: Hi, I am just wondering how long a mallard hen would leave her nest during the incubation period? One decided to use the side of our house for her nest and laid 11 eggs. I believe the incubation period began, because she only left her nest once a day and would return. This Friday she was there in.
DNR Offers Tips For Mallard Nests In The Yard - Rochester-Rochester Hills, MI - The DNR would like to offer tips on how to take care of mallard nests found in the yards of residents this summer in MI When you turn the eggs, the line should either be on the top or the bottom of the egg. Most eggs are incubated on their sides in small incubators. If they are raised at all, it is important that the large end with the air sac be up. Sometimes a regime of cooling and spraying duck and goose eggs results in better hatchability Find the perfect mallard duck eggs stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register, buy now Birds can make great pets - especially for people without a lot of space. Birds can also be very loud. This doesn't mean you'll never find a bird friend if you cherish the quiet, though. There are plenty of birds that live relatively low-volume lives 17. The Oldest Duck The oldest mallard documented through a banding record was at least 27 years old, says Carlson. The drake was banded in Louisiana in 1981 sometime after its hatching year, and was shot by a hunter in Arkansas in 2008. Imagine the places that duck went and the gauntlets it flew through all those hunting seasons. 18
Wood duck eggs/dump nests: A mature hen wood duck commonly lays 12-14 eggs. Smaller clutches could be from a young hen or a mature hen renesting after a failed clutch. It is very common for more than one hen to lay eggs in the same nest box or natural cavity. This may result in large numbers of eggs, frequently called dump nests A mallard male duck abandons the female during incubation. Mallard ducks do not mate for life - rather they mate and remain together only until the female lays her eggs. At this point, the male mallard duck abandons the female leaving her to incubate the eggs on her own. The male leaves the female and searches for a secluded and food-rich spot Our hatching duck eggs for sale feature various breeds. With the help of our partner hatcheries, we can ensure you're receiving the highest quality duck eggs available. Our partner hatcheries carry various types of ducks that hatch quality eggs, ranging from assorted duck eggs and Black Runner Duck Eggs to Buff Duck Eggs, Flying Mallard Duck. Editor's Note: Mallard ducks are a very popular breed amongst backyard duck hobbyists, competing with breeds such as the Khaki Campbell for attention. It's important to understand the basics of raising ducks before entering this fascinating and fun hobby! Others may be interested in learning how to care for wild Mallards. Raising Mallard Ducks: Introduction to How To Raise Mallards Mallard chicks begin to fly above the surface 50 days after they hatch from the eggs, and after 7-10 days from the first attempts, they fully stand on the wing. The offspring of the wild duck gogol begins to fly at about the same time frame - 57-66 days, and the shelled ducklings start to fly earlier - in the period from 45 to 50 days
Of all the types of ducks, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the most widespread and most familiar species in the world, and they are the ancestors of most domestic duck breeds.Found wild throughout the Northern Hemisphere, mallards have also been introduced to many other areas and can easily be found in ponds, lakes, and rivers, as well as in artificial habitats such as golf courses. The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is a common water bird in the UK. Mallards are Britain's most common surface feeding duck. It lives in a variety of habitats and many have become tame due to living near human populations. It has the ability to virtually fly vertically into the air from a position on the water suface. Its broad beak allows it to filter food from the water. Mallards eat almost. Oct 1, 2009 3 0 7. (shes also Muscovy) I always kept my eggs in an earthen cellar - temps around 65 degrees and humidity around 60 % or better. My Muscovy mothers NEVER abandon eggs. Relevance. Most breeds of duck dont sit on their eggs, until 6 months after starting to lay. Adams is a certified health educator and a massage practitioner Duck is the common name for numerous species in the waterfowl family Anatidae which also includes swans and geese.Ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the family Anatidae; they do not represent a monophyletic group (the group of all descendants of a single common ancestral species) but a form taxon, since swans and geese are not considered ducks
Whole Virus Inactivated Vaccine. In the 1940s, the research group led by Thomas Francis, Jr., MD and Jonas Salk, MD at the University of Michigan developed the first influenza vaccine that was based on an inactivated influenza A virus and was licensed for military used in 1945.Their vaccine uses fertilized chicken eggs in a method that is still used to date to produce most influenza vaccines Abandoned Egg Was Holding The Most Determined Little Duckling. Even after she was left behind, the duckling inside an abandoned egg wasn't ready to give up. Daisy, a mallard duck, laid nine eggs on a hot June day - but time wasn't on her side. In 106-degree heat, Daisy was forced to leave two unhatched eggs behind so she could transport her. Even abandoned duck eggs are part of the wheel of life, and ducks are one animal that isn't in any immediate danger. Also, you might end up as mommy duck. With wildlife in trouble, you might want to find (e.g. via web search or asking animal control or vets) who your nearest licensed wildlife rehabilitators are I have 6 Mallard duck eggs in a nest in an elevated flower garden hidden by a bush, We first noticed it 6 days ago, so far the mother duck has sat on the nest only 2 days and left for 2 more days, came back for about 6 hours and left again and hasn't been back since, that was 2 days ago, has she abandoned the nest
Apr 16, 2021. #1. Hello! I am new here and apologize if I am posting in the wrong place. I am trying to find some information on Mallard ducks and their nesting habits. I live in Ontario, Canada. I have had the same hen nest in the same spot in my backyard for at least the past 4 to 5 springs. She has always seemed relatively unperturbed by our. Mallard. Ducks and mallards can have several broods a year. If their nest is destroyed, they are likely to build a new one close by and lay more eggs. If you see a nest unattended, don't go near it. The mother will be close by foraging for food and she will have one eye on her chicks. She hasn't abandoned it duck eggs disappeared from nest, no evidence! One of our khaki campbell hens went broody so we decided to let her try. I think there were 5 eggs in the nest but we didnt want to check to disturb her. She sat for two days, getting up briefly to eat and drink. This morning she was sitting on the nest and there were eggs in it. We were out all day Special Note about Duck / Goose Eggs: Dave Holderread in his book, 'Storey's Guide to RAISING DUCKS recommends that duck / goose eggs be sprayed or sprinkled with warm water to prevent the egg membranes from drying out and becoming tough during the hatch (potentially resulting in dead-in-shells). He recommends spraying or sprinkling these. Migratory birds, their nests and their eggs are protected by the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act and must be left alone. Only licensed wildlife rehabilitators may possess abandoned or injured wildlife. Why would a duck abandon her eggs? Shhhhhhh! She may abandon her nest if there is too much fussing going on around her. Keep outside visitors.
High-Powered Hatchlings - Mallard ducks lay 8-13 eggs per clutch, and when the ducklings hatch they are capable of swimming immediately. The ducklings will diligently follow mom into the water soon after hatching. They will remain with mom, but search for their own food If she is successful and her eggs hatch, the mother duck will lead her ducklings to the nearest body of water, often the day they hatch. Don't worry if you do not live near water, the mother duck knows where to take her ducklings to find it, said Vaughn. The female mallard will sit on the nest for about a month prior to the eggs hatching Muscovy Duck Appearance . The Muscovy is a large duck and can have a wingspan of up to 64 inches. It is also a heavy breed and can weigh up to 15lbs, although the girls are slightly lighter at 6-7lbs. As the males are so heavy, they can struggle to fly, but the females can fly, and you will need to clip their wings to prevent them from escaping
Hatching Mallard Duck Eggs! In this video, I find four abandoned duck eggs in my neighbors yard and incubate them until they hatch. Three of the four ducklings hatched and are eating an.. He has taken an abandoned domesticated Mallard egg and placed it in a Wood Duck box, only to have the female Wood Duck incubate the egg and take care of the duckling as if it was one of her own. Jameson says the thrill of watching baby Wood Ducks jump from their box to begin life on Lake Houston is a sight to behold and wishes everyone could. Duck eggs may be hatched naturally by placing them under a broody duck or even a broody chicken hen. Muscovy ducks are very good setters, capable of hatching 12-15 duck eggs. The nest box should be located in a clean dry shelter, bedded with suitable litter. Feed and water should be available for the broody duck and for the ducklings when they. Runner. Barnyard ducks are bred for characteristics such as egg production or appearance. Although the chances of a Koloa and barnyard duck directly hybrid izing in the wild are very small, many scientists have raised concerns about the large numbers of abandoned domestic ducks found on public water bodies an Hen lays one egg a day for a full nest of 8-12 eggs often near the site where she herself hatched. Hens will re-nest up to four times if a nest is destroyed or abandoned Hen incubates eggs for an average of 28 days and leads brood to wetland within 24 hours of hatching—stays with brood until they are able to fly at about 8 weeks of age
If abandoned eggs hatch after she leaves the nest, the ducklings/goslings are left to fend for themselves. If you're able to catch a lone, dry duckling or gosling, with duck/goose families nearby, walk around the area, including the shores of lakes or streams with the duckling or gosling cupped securely in your hands the mother duck will not come back to the nest, and she will leave the egg there. But if it is an abandon nest, nothing will happen. And if you find one laying around no where near a nest that. Crested mallard duck Eggs. The female crested mallard duck lays eight to 13 creamy white to greenish-buff spotless eggs, on alternate days. the hen might try and eject them and even abandon the nest if parasitism happens throughout egg-laying. Predators and threats. Crested mallard ducks of all ages (however particularly younger ones) and. Can You Eat Mallard Duck Eggs? Yes, you can eat mallard duck eggs. Some people even use these eggs for baking, and they say it makes the cakes fluffier. To cook with mallard eggs, simply substitute duck eggs for chicken eggs in the same quantities called for in the recipe. For example, if the recipe calls for 1 chicken egg, use 1 duck egg Duck eggs require between 50-70% humidity for most of the hatch cycle and around 80% the last few days before hatching. Don't worry if you can't get the humdity up high enough with the glass jar. I've found that wetting my hands every time before I turn an egg (you should be turning them 180 degrees 3-4 times per day) makes the egg shells.
Mallard ducks . Mallard ducks, like other duck species, usually nest on land, but tend to nest in trees on occasion, depending on the conditions of their environment. The mallard duck is one of the most popular and versatile, in nature it is a migratory bird and therefore can fly. Mallards are extremely well adapted in their choice of nesting. It is legal to remove a duck nest as long as there are no eggs in it. Allow breeding to occur if the nest is already established. It is a violation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to destroy eggs or to disturb a mother duck that has laid eggs without a permit from the US Fish and Wildlife Service.(Permits to addle [oil] or remove eggs from. Help! I found a baby duck! Help! I found a baby duck! I could really use some assistance. Literally a baby duck walked right up basically to our front door today. We searched and searched and can not find a sign of a mother duck or any other ducklings. He is a tiny little thing, no feathers, and surely could not survive the night alone, so I. Hatching Eggs and a Broody Duck. For the past month our buff duck hen has been broody. I went away at the beginning of August and when I returned she had made herself very comfortable on a nest of 10 duck eggs. And oh my, was she broody. She would sit there and quack at the top of her lungs, her duck bill wide open Description. The mallard is a medium-sized waterfowl species although is often slightly heavier than most other dabbling ducks.. The breeding male mallard is unmistakable, with a glossy bottle-green head and white collar which demarcates the head from the purple-tinged brown breast, grey brown wings, and a pale grey belly
We found an abandoned mallard duck two days ago. We are debating whether to keep him/her but I'm concerned about the mess, as our yard is fairly large but not huge..but we enjoy the lush green grass for our small dog. But my main concern is quality of life for this duck . The mallard is a dabbling duck meaning they turn upside down in the water and feed on food under the water's surface. They make also make use of the abandoned nest of another species such as herons or crows. Mallard Duck | Utah's Hogle Zoo.
Baby Ducks: What They Need. So, you either found a baby duck or multiple baby ducks, or you bought one at a feed store, and you need help. I personally found three abandoned ducklings in the middle of a busy intersection, and I wanted to share with you how to successfully raise them to adulthood Male Mallard - Thomas. tail has white borders. The female Mallard is a mottled light brown, like most female dabbling ducks, and has buff cheeks, eyebrow, throat and neck with a darker crown and eye-stripe However, both the female and male Mallards have distinct purple speculum edged with white, prominent in flight or at rest (though temporarily shed during the annual summer moult) The Division of Wildlife's mission is to conserve and improve fish and wildlife resources and their habitats for sustainable use and appreciation by all Mrs. Mallard's second clutch of eggs has hatched, and all eleven ducklings and their mother successfully made it into the water. With a little help. Here's the video, thanks to ceci n'est pas mon nym! And here's Operation Mallard 1, in case you missed it Table 3. Egg success of five species of ducks parasitized interspecifically by the redhead, ruddy duck, or both (1972-74). Total no. eggs No. host eggs No. parasitic eggs Host Parasite species species host parasite hatched sub-samplea hatched sub-sampleb Mallard Ruddy duck 11 11 2 11(18.2)c 4 11(36.4) Redhead 56 41 33 45(73.3) 6 28(21.4) Both 8.
Mallards lay from 60 to 120 eggs a year. They can be kept domestically, but it is recommended to keep those already born into captivity instead of taking them from the wild. Capturing wild Mallard is even illegal in some places. Can Mallard ducks fly? Yes, Mallard ducks can fly. This wild breed produces competent flyers, even in captivity Many animals enjoy snacking on duck eggs, which means an immediate loss to the baby duck population. What eats mallard ducks? Mallard ducks, with their glossy green heads and white collar around their necks (male) or mottled brown feathers (females and ducklings) are the most common duck found in North America. Mallards in the wild can often. Do male ducks help raise ducklings? A pair of adult swans or geese defending a brood is a formidable opponent for most predators. In most northern-nesting ducks, on the other hand, males play little to no role in brood care. In fact, most male ducks abandon the female when she begins incubation or shortly after her eggs hatch Ducks for Sale in Nevada. Filter Bird Ads. Search. Sort. Ads 1 - 10 of 83. Species. - All Species - - All Ducks - Harlequin Rouen. Location. City or Zip Code - Any Location - - Enter City or Zip - Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana.
. According to Google, they lay 8-12 eggs in their nests, at a rate of 1 per day, and then when all eggs have been laid, they sit on them to incubate them. Sometime later all the eggs hatch over a 48 hour.. of duck farming;the superior quality of duck eggs, down, and meat--are the focal point of the final chapter Harvesting the Rewards, likely the first chapter the dubious duck farmer will read prior to taking the dive into ducks. The book concludes when man found that the Mallard and Muscovy that he. Posts about ducks written by whyevolutionistrue. Why Evolution Is True. Why Evolution is True is a blog written by Jerry Coyne, centered on evolution and biology but also dealing with diverse topics like politics, culture, and cats